Pima Indians lifestyles used to be based on feast and famine. Explanations of aggressive displays based on mating success, fail to explain the extreme cruelty that is found in many human conflicts which is absent among non-human species.
This theory is based on the idea that aggression has been developed to ensure survival of the group and is passed on through the generations. Group aggression as a response to xenophobia would ensure protection of resources and increase chances of survival and reproduction of the group if they are successful.
Further research support for taste aversion involving children and bitter foods was conducted by Minella who conducted research on people aged who were given bitter foods. Discuss one or more evolutionary explanations of group display in humans.
This idea has been disputed, as studies have found that a larger crowd does not give the team an advantage.
Evidence had been gained from observations of species changing, fossils recorded and primate studies. Explanations of warfare that are based on mating success or commitment fail to explain the extreme levels of cruelty that are often found in human wars yet not among non-human species.
The acquisition of these resources would enable to survival of the group and future offspring. This blog is relevant to the current specification as of This blog is relevant to the current specification as of Research support for xenophobia in group displays comes from Foldesi who also found intolerance towards outsiders in a study of Hungarian football crowds, with violent incidents based on racist or xenophobic attitudes being displayed across all stadiums.
Stanford found that after starving a sample of chimps for most of the year, they went straight for the fattiest parts of their kill to take on as much energy and fat as possible, supporting the adaptive principle. As a result, this preference for fatty foods is an adaptive response to early diets because harsh EEA conditions forced humans to seek high-calorie foods which promote survival, achieved through high energy to keep warm and catch food.
This is a bad thing because it assumes we have no free will about how much we eat and we have no choice but to become obese because we are preparing for winter. Therefore, the theory is deterministic because it suggests that we are victims of our ancestors adaptive to survive.
When men compete with each other for mates, and those who do well in battle gain access to female mate. The costliness of permanent displays such as scars and mutilation serve as signals of commitment to the group.
It is much easier to access food compared to cavemen times they had to hunt constantly. We may have genes which make us more likely to produce certain behaviours e.
Because of this, people had to fight in order to protect these sites. SLT and deindividuation would be an alternate explanations for group aggression which is not taken into consideration with the evolutionary approach.
It blames our EEA for us being aggressive. You cannot get 50 stone from preparing for winter in modern society. Aggressive displays when defending territory may have been adaptive for our ancestors because they allowed groups to defend valuable resources associated with their territory.
However, football fans have rated crowd support as the most significant factor contributing to a home advantage. They found that the absence of home crowds actually increased performance of the teams. Advertisements Search Follow Blog via Email Enter your email address to follow this blog and receive notifications of new posts by email.
For example it is not understood why humans torture or mutilate their opponents, even once they no longer pose a threat which renders the evolutionary explanation of group displays an incomplete explanation of aggression. Possessing traits does not mean that you are forced to exhibit specific behaviours see the point above.
As a result, real world applications can be drawn from this research into xenophobia because the xenophobic aggression has motivated football officials to minimise its influence.
A criticism of the evolutionary explanation of group aggression is that it can be argued that it is particularly reductionist because it ignores the day to day experiences that occur when developing aggressive behaviour such as social learning theory SLT observing a role model being aggression and potentially being rewarded — vicarious reinforcement.
Evolutionary explanations of warfare struggle to explain the role of women. Evaluating means talking about the strengths and weaknesses of the study as well as the strengths and weaknesses of the level of analysis as a whole with reference to the question e.
Our understanding of displays of warfare is largely limited to males. Instead, these events can be explained through deindividuation and a loss of identity in a faceless crowd; Mullen investigated lynchings in the US and found that the larger the crowd of people, the more severe the lynchings were because people felt a lowered sense of self and shared responsibility.
The idea that women might be innately and universally more caring and more concerned with rearing children than men is highly controversial.
However, football fans have rated crowd support as the most significant factor contributing to a home advantage.
Group aggression is seen as war, whereby one group attacks another in order to gain territory and resources. For example, the Dahomey Amazons were an all-female army who conquered much of North-West Africa between the 17th and 19th centuries.
A weakness of the evolutionary approach of group aggression is that it lacks scientific evidence.
Group displays were characterised by racist chants and openly anti-Semitic banners. Some psychologists believe that aggressive displays are not due to biological compulsions but are due to environmental changes.
Sports and warfare are only suggestions though; other explanations can also be used.Discuss evolutionary explanations of group display in humans, e.g.
sport and warfare. (8 marks + 16 marks) You should outline and evaluate relevant explanations, such as xenophobia and territoriality in sports, and mate competition and group commitment in warfare.
Jun 14, · Discuss applications of one or more theories of cognitive development to education (8+16) Discuss evolutionary explanations of human aggression.
(8+16 marks) Discuss one or more evolutionary explanations of group display in humans (8+16). ALL YOU NEED TO KNOW ABOUT AGGRESSION. AQA Specification A. Evolutionary explanations of group display in human, for example sport and warfare. PREVIOUS EXAM QUESTIONS ON AGGRESSION – PSYA 3.
one or more. evolutionary explanations of group display in humans. 4. Discuss one or more evolutionary explanations of group display in humans. (25 marks) Group display in humans has been studied by a variety of psychologists both classic and contemporary. Psychologists such as Le Bon believe that crowd behaviour is explained through the individual taking on the ‘psychology’ of the crowd’.
Outline and Evaluate one or more explanations of why people obey It has been found by Milgram that people obey for four main reasons these are; legitimate authority, the momentum of compliance, the agentic shift and passivity.
Discuss one or more evolutionary explanations of group display in humans.
Group behaviour can possess an adaptive advantage for the individuals within the group, which is why it can appear in particular social situations.Download