Upon discovering the errors all of themthe publisher immediately recalled the books. Em dashes are easy to create in Microsoft Word: Note that this is only available using the hyphen on the numeric keypad not the main keyboard.
In Mac OS X, an em dash can be typed very easily by holding down the option and shift keys and typing a hyphen. The dash has only one use: Em dash Em rule An em dash — is longer than an en dash — and three times as long as a hyphen.
The juvenile defendant, ———, was arraigned yesterday. The Serbs want peace—or so they say. For example, em dashes are used when a parenthetical remark contains an internal comma or would otherwise sound awkward if enclosed by commas.
Surrounding punctuation should be placed as usual. Most word processors will not do this automatically, however, and use of em dash in formal writing abbreviations will require some fiddling.
Notwithstanding its versatility, the em dash is best limited to two appearances per sentence. Most newspapers — and all that follow AP style — insert a space before and after the em dash. After three weeks on set, the cast was fed up with his direction or, rather, lack of direction.
Posted by Timothy McAdoo at Note, however, that dashes are always more emphatic than commas. An ellipsis can demonstrate a pause in dialogue, a pause in narrative, or a character or a narrator trailing off. Sometimes when a quote is used in a news story, parts of the quote are unnecessary to the story.
From the faded and water-damaged note, we made out only this: An honest politician — if such a creature exists — would never agree to such a plan. An em dash can indicate a sudden break, an interruption, or a trailing off, for example: Finally, in the rare case in which a sentence is broken off abruptly without being completed, a single dash is also used: For more detail on the use of hyphens, en dashes, em dashes, and even minus signs, see page 97 of the Publication Manual.
Most newspapers, however, set the em dash off with a single space on each side. There was no other way — or was there? The exceedingly genteel Victorian novelists often wrote d—n in place of damn, and even Go to the d—l!
It is not used to introduce a direct quotationexcept sometimes in novels, but this is not a usage you should imitate.
Perhaps a useful way to think of the em dash is as a pause or parenthesis with somewhat more emphasis than a comma and somewhat less than parentheses. Em dashes set apart parenthetical phrases or clauses in a sentence.
Note that, in this case, the dash is written solid next to the unfinished piece-of-a-word which precedes it. Or, you can even copy and paste one of the em dashes from earlier in this post! When used with care, this technique can really punctuate your point pun intended!
An em dash might set off a phrase at the end of a sentence—like this one. The destruction of Guernica — and there is no doubt that the destruction was deliberate — horrified the world. This quaint affectation is now dead. While parenthetical em dashes often operate in pairs see the examples under the first point abovehard-comma em dashes often function alone at ends of sentences, for example: There is one last point, very trivial.
There are two slightly different conventions for using a dash. Both en and em are standard words in the dictionary. Producing the em dash Many modern word processors will automatically insert an em dash when you type a pair of hyphens.
This is just one example of how fluid the English language is. If the strong interruption comes at the end of the sentence, then of course only one dash is used: Although brackets are still technically correct, they are largely deemed unnecessary.Em dash.
The em dash is perhaps the most versatile punctuation mark. Depending on the context, the em dash can take the place of commas, parentheses, or colons—in each case to slightly different effect.
Notwithstanding its versatility, the em dash is best limited to two appearances per sentence. While it’s never a mistake to use an appropriately placed en dash, whether you can use em dashes in formal writing is debatable. It is a slightly informal punctuation mark, so it’s best to use it sparingly in formal writing.
For more detail on the use of hyphens, en dashes, em dashes, and even minus signs, see page 97 of the Publication Manual.
Bonus tip for Scrabble players: Both en and em are standard words in the dictionary. Section Punctuation Format and. Abbreviations. Parentheses. Parentheses, em dashes, and commas serve similar purposes but differ in one impor- ematical and other specialized writing, and are not interchangeable with parentheses use em dashes instead of commas.
This element can define, elaborate on, emphasize. The most common types of dashes are the en dash (–) and the em dash (—). A good way to remember the difference between these two dashes is to visualize the en dash as the length of the letter N and the em dash as the length of the letter M.
How to Use an Ellipsis. Before discussing when ellipses are appropriately used, a few words on how the ellipsis is used are necessary.
An ellipsis makes up for a missing piece of text, or allows for a pause in writing.Download